Types of Fracture Names in English

Types of Fracture Names in English
Types of Fracture Names in English

Have you ever wondered about the different ways bones can break? Well, that’s where the idea of Types of Fractures comes in. Imagine our bones like the building blocks of our body, and sometimes they can get little cracks or even break. In this article, we’ll take a friendly tour through the various kinds of bone breaks, from the not-so-scary hairline cracks to the more serious ones that might need quick fixes. Think of it as your easy guide to understanding how bones can sometimes take unexpected turns and what we can do to help them get back on track. So, let’s dive into the world of Types of Fractures with a simple and friendly approach!

What is Fracture?

A bone fracture is a medical condition where there is a break or crack in a bone. It occurs when the force applied to the bone is stronger than the bone itself can withstand. Bone fractures can happen due to various reasons, such as falls, trauma, accidents, or underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones.

Bone fracture vs. break

When a bone gets hurt, people use words like bone fracture or bone break to talk about it. Doctors like to say bone fracture because it’s more exact and includes all kinds of breaks, big or small. But when we’re just talking with friends, we might say “bone break” to keep it simple. Both mean the same thing: the bone is not okay because something happened to it, like a fall or a hit. So, whether it’s a fracture in the doctor’s office or a break with friends, it’s all about making sure our bones get the care they need when they’re not feeling their best.

Here’s a simple table comparing the terms “bone fracture” and “bone break”:

Aspect Bone Fracture Bone Break
Definition A crack or break in the bone. A colloquial term often used to describe the same condition.
Medical Term The preferred and more precise medical term. A layman’s expression commonly used in casual conversations.
Formality More formal, often used in medical settings. Less formal, commonly used in everyday language.
Imaging Detected through X-rays or other imaging techniques. Same as bone fracture; imaging methods depend on severity.
Treatment Treatment varies based on the type and severity of the fracture. Same as bone fracture; treatment depends on the nature of the break.
Usage Used in medical contexts for accuracy. Used in everyday conversations for simplicity.

This table provides a quick comparison of the terms “bone fracture” and “bone break,” considering aspects such as definition, medical usage, formality, imaging, treatment, and general usage.

Bone fracture vs. bone bruise

When we talk about our bones getting hurt, we might hear about “bone fractures” and “bone bruises.” A bone fracture is like a crack or break in the bone. It can be small like a hairline crack or more serious with bigger breaks. Doctors can see fractures on X-rays, and treatment might include putting on a cast or even surgery. On the other hand, a bone bruise is when the bone’s surface gets hurt but doesn’t actually break. These bruises are not always easy to see on X-rays, so doctors might use something like an MRI to check. Treating a bone bruise usually means taking it easy, using ice, and managing any pain until it gets better. So, fractures are like bigger breaks, and bruises are more on the surface, but both need some care to heal up well.

Here’s a simple table comparing the terms “bone fracture” and “bone break”:

Aspect Bone Fracture Bone Bruise
Definition A crack or break in the bone due to excessive force or trauma. Damage to the bone’s surface without a visible break.
Severity Can range from small cracks (hairline fractures) to complete breaks. Generally less severe compared to fractures.
Visible Break Visible break or crack in the bone structure. No visible break; damage occurs at the bone’s surface.
Imaging Easily detected on X-rays. May not be easily detected on X-rays; MRI may be needed.
Treatment Immobilization with casts, splints, or surgery, depending on severity. Rest, ice, and pain management; often heals with time.
Healing Time Healing time varies based on the type and severity of the fracture. Healing generally occurs with time and conservative care.
Examples Complete fractures, hairline fractures, comminuted fractures. Bone contusions, periosteal bruises.

This table provides a quick overview of the key differences between bone fractures and bone bruises, including their definitions, severity, visibility on imaging, treatment approaches, healing times, and examples.

Types of Fracture Names in English
Types of Fracture Names in English

What are the Different Types of Bone Fracture?

There are several different types of bone fractures, each characterized by the nature and extent of the break. Here’s an overview of common types:

1. Normal Fracture:

A term that is not commonly used; bones typically have specific fracture patterns, such as transverse or oblique.

2. Impacted Fracture:

One end of the broken bone is driven into the other, often seen in compression fractures.

3. Torus (Buckle) Fracture:

The bone deforms but doesn’t break completely, commonly seen in children.

4. Oblique Displaced Fracture:

A diagonal break where the bone fragments may not align properly.

5. Segmental Fracture:

The bone breaks into two or more separate parts.

6. Linear Fracture:

A straightforward break in the bone, often used interchangeably with transverse fractures.

7. Transverse Fracture:

A transverse fracture occurs when the break is perpendicular to the bone’s long axis, creating a straight line.

8. Oblique Fracture:

In an oblique fracture, the break has a diagonal pattern, often resulting from a twisting force applied to the bone.

9. Spiral Fracture:

A spiral fracture is characterized by a spiral-shaped break, typically caused by a twisting motion.

10. Comminuted Fracture:

Comminuted fractures involve the bone breaking into multiple fragments or pieces. This type can be more complex and may require surgical intervention.

11. Greenstick Fracture:

Common in children, a greenstick fracture occurs when the bone bends and cracks but does not completely break.

12. Hairline Fracture:

A hairline fracture is a tiny crack in the bone that may be hard to detect on X-rays. It is a minor type of fracture.

13. Compression Fracture:

Compression fractures involve the bone collapsing or being crushed, often seen in vertebrae.

14. Avulsion Fracture:

Avulsion fractures occur when a small piece of bone is pulled away by a tendon or ligament.

15. Stress Fracture:

Stress fractures result from repeated stress on a bone, common in athletes or individuals engaged in repetitive activities.

16. Pathologic Fracture:

Pathologic fractures occur when a weakened bone breaks due to an underlying disease or condition, such as osteoporosis or a tumor.

17. Open (Compound) Fracture:

An open fracture involves a break in the bone that protrudes through the skin, posing an increased risk of infection.

18. Closed Fracture:

In contrast, a closed fracture does not break through the skin, keeping the fracture site protected.

These types of bone fractures help healthcare professionals understand the specific characteristics of the injury, guiding appropriate treatment and management strategies based on the nature and severity of the break.

Open vs. closed fractures

An open fracture happens when a broken bone comes out through the skin, making a cut. It’s more serious because the bone is exposed, needing quick medical attention to clean the wound and fix the bone. On the other hand, a closed fracture is when the broken bone stays inside the body, not breaking through the skin. Though generally less serious, it still requires a doctor’s care for the best healing plan, often involving casts or other methods to keep the bone in place during recovery.

Displaced vs. non-displaced fractures

A displaced fracture happens when a broken bone’s pieces don’t line up correctly, needing extra attention from doctors to put them back in place. It’s like a puzzle that needs careful fixing. On the other hand, a non-displaced fracture is when the broken bone ends still match up well. While not as tricky as a displaced one, it still requires help from doctors, often using casts to keep everything in order for proper healing. Whether the pieces need realignment or just a bit of support, both types of fractures need medical care to make sure bones heal the right way.

Who Gets Bone Fractures?

Bone fractures can happen to anyone, regardless of age or gender. However, certain factors and situations may increase the likelihood of experiencing a bone fracture. Here are some considerations:

  1. Age:
    • Children: Fractures are common in active children due to falls and sports-related injuries.
    • Older Adults: As people age, bones may become more brittle, making them prone to fractures, especially in the case of conditions like osteoporosis.
  2. Activities and Lifestyle:
    • Athletes: Those involved in sports, especially contact sports or activities with a risk of falls, have a higher chance of experiencing fractures.
    • Accidents: Individuals involved in accidents, such as car crashes or falls, may sustain fractures.
  3. Medical Conditions:
    • Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weakened bones, making them more susceptible to fractures.
    • Cancer: Some cancers and their treatments can weaken bones, increasing the risk of fractures.
    • Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A genetic disorder causing brittle bones, particularly in children.
  4. Occupational Hazards:
    • Certain occupations involve a higher risk of fractures, especially in industries with physical demands or potential for accidents.
  5. Gender:
    • Women, especially postmenopausal women, are more prone to fractures due to the decline in estrogen levels associated with bone density loss.
  6. Bone Health:
    • Nutritional factors and insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D can impact bone health, potentially increasing the risk of fractures.

While these factors may contribute to an increased risk of fractures, it’s essential to note that anyone can experience a bone fracture due to unforeseen accidents or injuries. Seeking prompt medical attention for evaluation and appropriate care is crucial in the event of a suspected fracture.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the symptoms of a bone fracture?

The symptoms of a bone fracture can vary depending on the location, type, and severity of the fracture. Here are common signs that may indicate a bone fracture:

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Deformity
  • Limited Range of Motion
  • Tenderness
  • Difficulty or Inability to Bear Weight
  • Numbness or Tingling
  • Visible Bone

What causes bone fractures?

Bone fractures are almost always caused by traumas. Anything that hits one of your bones with enough force can break it. Some of the most common causes include:

  • Trauma and Accidents
  • Osteoporosis
  • Overuse and Repetitive Stress
  • Medical Conditions
  • Sports Injuries
  • Poor Nutrition
  • Aging
  • Occupational Hazards
  • Genetic Factors
  • Lack of Safety Measures
  • Bone Abnormalities

Diagnosis and Tests

How are bone fractures diagnosed?

Your provider will diagnose a bone fracture with a physical exam and imaging tests. In some cases, this may be done in the emergency room if you’re admitted after a trauma. If you’re taken to the ER, a team of providers stabilize you and treat your injuries in the order of severity, especially if some are life-threatening. After you’re stabilized, you will need imaging tests to confirm any fractures.

What tests are done to diagnose bone fractures?

Diagnosing bone fractures involves a variety of tests to accurately assess the nature and extent of the injury. Common diagnostic tests for bone fractures include:

  1. Clinical Examination: A healthcare provider evaluates the injured area, checking for signs such as swelling, tenderness, and deformity.
  2. X-rays: X-ray imaging is a standard tool for visualizing bones. It provides detailed images, helping identify the location and severity of fractures.
  3. CT Scans: Computed tomography (CT) scans offer three-dimensional views of bones, especially useful for assessing complex or detailed fractures.
  4. MRI Scans: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for visualizing soft tissues and detecting associated injuries like ligament or tendon damage.
  5. Bone Scans: Nuclear medicine bone scans can identify stress fractures or fractures not immediately visible on X-rays, providing a broader perspective.
  6. Ultrasound: Ultrasound imaging may be used, particularly in pediatric cases, to assess fractures, especially around growth plates.
  7. Clinical History and Symptoms: Information about the circumstances of the injury, symptoms experienced, and the patient’s medical history is crucial for accurate diagnosis.
  8. Bone Density Testing: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or other bone density tests may be performed when osteoporosis is a concern.
  9. Stress Testing: Stress tests, including weight-bearing X-rays, may be used to assess fractures that are visible only under certain conditions, such as during weight-bearing activities.

The choice of diagnostic tests depends on factors such as the suspected type and location of the fracture, the age of the patient, and the overall clinical context. These tests collectively provide a comprehensive understanding of the fracture, guiding healthcare professionals in developing an appropriate treatment plan for optimal healing.

Management and Treatment

How are bone fractures treated?

How a broken bone is treated depends on the type of break, what caused it, and how much damage there is. Here are some common ways doctors help bones heal:

  1. Keeping it Still:
    • If the break is not too bad, doctors might use a cast or brace to keep the bone in place while it heals.
  2. Fixing the Bones:
    • For more serious breaks, especially if the bones are not in the right position, doctors might need to put them back in place. This can sometimes be done without surgery, but in some cases, they may need to operate.
  3. Pain Relief:
    • To make you more comfortable, doctors may give you medicine to help with the pain. It could be something you take by mouth or something applied to the skin.
  4. Rehabilitation:
    • Once the bone is healing, exercises and physical therapy help make the injured part strong again. This is important for moving well and preventing stiffness.
  5. Rest and Elevation:
    • Resting the injured area and keeping it raised can reduce swelling and assist with healing. Occasionally, doctors might suggest using ice to control swelling.
  6. Checking Progress:
    • Doctors will keep an eye on how well the bone is healing by taking more pictures, like X-rays, during follow-up visits.

Remember, the way a broken bone is treated can vary, and your doctor will choose the best approach based on your specific situation. Following their advice and attending follow-up appointments is important for a smooth recovery.


How can I reduce my risk for bone fractures?

These safety tips are excellent measures to reduce the risk of injuries and promote overall well-being. Here’s a summarized version for easy reference:

  1. Protective Gear:
    • Use appropriate protective gear for different activities and sports to prevent injuries.
  2. Use Seatbelts:
    • Always wear your seatbelt when driving or traveling in a vehicle.
  3. Keep Spaces Clear:
    • Maintain cleanliness in your home and workplace to avoid tripping hazards.
  4. Proper Tool Use:
    • Use the right tools at home; avoid standing on chairs, tables, or countertops.
  5. Bone Health:
    • Maintain healthy bones through a balanced diet and regular exercise.
  6. Bone Density Test:
    • Discuss a bone density test with your healthcare provider if you’re over 50 or have a family history of osteoporosis.
  7. Mobility Aids:
    • Use a cane or walker if needed, especially if you face difficulties in walking or have an increased risk of falls.
  8. Clear Spaces:
    • Keep home and workspace clutter-free to prevent tripping hazards.

These simple safety tips, when remembered and practiced, can contribute to a safer and healthier lifestyle, reducing the risk of accidents and injuries.

Outlook / Prognosis

What can I expect if I have a bone fracture?

If you break a bone, it might hurt a lot, and your doctor may put on a cast or brace to help it heal. You could feel some swelling and bruising. Your doctor might give you medicine to help with the pain. You’ll need to be careful and not move the injured part too much. Sometimes, you might need to see the doctor again to check if the bone is getting better. As it heals, you might start doing regular things slowly, and your doctor might suggest exercises to make your bones strong again. If you feel sad or worried, it’s okay to talk to your friends or family. Just follow what your doctor says, and you’ll get better!

Living With

When should I go to the emergency room?

You should go to the emergency room if you experience a severe injury or medical condition that requires immediate attention. Here are some situations that may warrant a visit to the emergency room:

  1. Traumatic Injuries: For severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, deep cuts, or injuries resulting from accidents or falls.
  2. Chest Pain or Difficulty Breathing: If you experience chest pain, shortness of breath, or difficulty breathing, as these symptoms may indicate a serious heart or respiratory condition.
  3. Head Injuries: For head injuries accompanied by loss of consciousness, persistent vomiting, or confusion.
  4. Severe Abdominal Pain: If you have intense abdominal pain that is sudden and persistent, it may be a sign of a serious condition that requires immediate attention.
  5. Uncontrolled Bleeding: For injuries or situations where bleeding cannot be controlled with direct pressure.
  6. Seizures:If someone is experiencing a seizure that lasts more than five minutes or if seizures occur one after another.
  7. Sudden Weakness or Slurred Speech: Symptoms like sudden weakness on one side of the body, slurred speech, or difficulty speaking may indicate a stroke and require immediate medical attention.
  8. Severe Allergic Reactions: For severe allergic reactions with symptoms like difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat, or a rapid heartbeat.
  9. Loss of Consciousness: If someone loses consciousness, even for a brief period, especially if it’s not known why it happened.
  10. Poisoning: Suspected cases of poisoning, ingestion of toxic substances, or exposure to dangerous chemicals.

Always trust your instincts and seek emergency medical care if you believe the situation is serious. If in doubt, it’s safer to seek immediate medical attention rather than delaying care. If possible, call emergency services or have someone take you to the nearest emergency room.

Can bone fractures cause fevers?

Breaking a bone usually doesn’t make you get a fever. But, if you have a big cut or the broken bone sticks out through the skin, there’s a chance it could get infected, and that might make you feel hot with a fever. Infections can happen after surgery or when the injury is severe. If you ever have a fever along with a broken bone, it’s important to tell a grown-up or go see a doctor. They can figure out what’s going on and help you feel better.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

When consulting with your doctor about a bone fracture or related concerns, it’s important to ask questions to gain a better understanding of your condition and the recommended course of action. Here are some questions you might consider asking:

  1. About the Fracture:
    • What type of fracture do I have?
    • Where is the fracture located?
    • How severe is the fracture?
  2. Treatment Options:
    • What are the treatment options for my specific fracture?
    • Is surgery necessary, and if so, what does it involve?
    • Are there non-surgical alternatives, like casting or bracing?
  3. Recovery and Rehabilitation:
    • How long will it take for the fracture to heal?
    • What restrictions or limitations should I be aware of during the recovery period?
    • Will I need physical therapy, and if so, what does it entail?
  4. Pain Management:
    • What pain relief options are available?
    • Are there potential side effects of pain medications?
    • How can I manage pain at home?
  5. Complications and Warning Signs:
    • What are the potential complications associated with my fracture?
    • What warning signs should I look out for that might indicate a problem?
  6. Follow-up Appointments:
    • How often do I need to come in for follow-up appointments?
    • What will be assessed during these follow-up visits?
  7. Activity and Lifestyle Changes:
    • Are there specific activities I should avoid during the healing process?
    • Can I continue with my regular daily activities, and if so, when?
  8. Long-Term Impact:
    • Will the fracture have any long-term effects on my mobility or function?
    • Are there preventive measures to avoid future fractures?
  9. Medications:
    • Are there medications prescribed, and what are they for?
    • Are there potential interactions with other medications I am taking?
  10. Emergency Situations:
    • What should I do in case of an emergency or if I experience severe pain or complications?

Remember, these are general questions, and you may have specific concerns based on your situation. Don’t hesitate to ask any questions that come to mind during your appointment. Clear communication with your doctor will help you make informed decisions about your health and recovery.


  1. What type of fracture occurs when the bone breaks into two or more fragments?
    • a) Linear Fracture
    • b) Segmental Fracture
  2. Which fracture involves the bone breaking incompletely, often seen in children?
    • a) Greenstick Fracture
    • b) Transverse Fracture
  3. A fracture where the bone is twisted apart is known as:
    • a) Spiral Fracture
    • b) Oblique Fracture
  4. In an impacted fracture, the broken ends of the bone are forced into each other.
    • a) True
    • b) False
  5. What is the term for a fracture that circles the bone shaft like a spiral staircase?
    • a) Linear Fracture
    • b) Spiral Fracture
  6. Which type of fracture is characterized by a bone fragment being pulled away by a ligament or tendon?
    • a) Comminuted Fracture
    • b) Avulsed Fracture
  7. What is another term for a compound fracture?
    • a) Open Fracture
    • b) Closed Fracture
  8. Which fracture results in the bone breaking into several pieces?
    • a) Buckle Fracture
    • b) Comminuted Fracture
  9. What is the term for a fracture that runs at a slant to the bone’s axis?
    • a) Oblique Fracture
    • b) Transverse Fracture
  10. In a compression fracture, the bone collapses.
    • a) True
    • b) False
  11. What type of fracture is common in osteoporotic bones and results in the bone collapsing?
    • a) Compression Fracture
    • b) Impacted Fracture
  12. An avulsed fracture involves a bone fragment being:
    • a) Pulled away
    • b) Twisted
  13. What is the term for a fracture where the bone is broken but doesn’t pierce through the skin?
    • a) Closed Fracture
    • b) Open Fracture
  14. Which fracture results in a bone segment being pulled away by a ligament or tendon?
    • a) Avulsed Fracture
    • b) Spiral Fracture
  15. What is the characteristic of a greenstick fracture?
    • a) Complete break
    • b) Incomplete break


  1. b) Segmental Fracture
  2. a) Greenstick Fracture
  3. a) Spiral Fracture
  4. a) True
  5. b) Spiral Fracture
  6. b) Avulsed Fracture
  7. a) Open Fracture
  8. b) Comminuted Fracture
  9. a) Oblique Fracture
  10. a) True
  11. a) Compression Fracture
  12. a) Pulled away
  13. a) Closed Fracture
  14. a) Avulsed Fracture
  15. b) Incomplete break


Q1. What is a fracture?

A fracture is a medical term for a broken bone. It can range from a simple crack to a complete break, and fractures are classified based on various factors.

Q2. How are fractures classified?

Fractures are classified based on factors such as the break’s location, pattern, and whether the bone pierces through the skin. Common types include closed, open, greenstick, transverse, and oblique fractures.

Q3. What is an open fracture?

An open fracture, also known as a compound fracture, occurs when the broken bone pierces through the skin. It poses a higher risk of infection due to exposure to the external environment.

Q4. What is a greenstick fracture?

A greenstick fracture is common in children and involves an incomplete break where the bone bends but doesn’t fully break. It is similar to breaking a green stick, hence the name.

Q5. How is a comminuted fracture different?

A comminuted fracture occurs when the bone breaks into three or more pieces. This type of fracture can be more complex and may require surgical intervention.

Q6. What is an avulsed fracture?

An avulsed fracture happens when a fragment of bone is pulled away by a ligament or tendon. It can result in significant pain and may require surgical management.

Q7. How are fractures diagnosed?

Fractures are diagnosed through physical examination, X-rays, and sometimes additional imaging tests like CT scans or MRIs to determine the extent and details of the fracture.

Q8. What is the treatment for fractures?

Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of the fracture. Options include casting, splinting, surgical intervention, and physical therapy to aid in recovery.

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